Direct Excavation

Surface reestablishment after completing all works

Cut & Cover - Direct Excavation 1 Cut & Cover - Direct Excavation 2

Inverse Excavation

Surface reestablishment just after completing the first-level of the underground structure

Cut & cover - Inverse Excavation 1 Cut & cover - Inverse Excavation 2

Door-Frame method

This is a cut-cover method with a construction sequence similar to inverse excavation.

Cut & Cover - Door-Frame method

Related papers

Case histories