The rediscovery of subterranean construction during the industrial revolution was not especially positive. During mass urban migrations, factory workers were housed in cellars and basements, in cold, damp, badly ventilated rooms. The proletariat lived in unhygienic. Unhealthy. Wretched conditions. At the end of the 19th century, some 20,000 people lived in basements in Amsterdam alone. Aboveground city expansion primarily accommodated the rapidly growing middle class. Who wanted. Like the old elites. To live well in spacious surroundings.

ITA Recommended Papers

This presentation has been made by Ms. Sushma Goh, Singapore, during the ITA Open session In Singapore 2004. This presentation is fully illustrated by diagrams and photographs of good examples of underground space architecture. She challenged our industry to always consider the human aspects of our industry.